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Review
. 1993 Apr;187(3-5):417-29.
doi: 10.1016/S0171-2985(11)80354-2.

The Bactericidal/Permeability-Increasing Protein (BPI), a Potent Element in Host-Defense Against Gram-Negative Bacteria and Lipopolysaccharide

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Review

The Bactericidal/Permeability-Increasing Protein (BPI), a Potent Element in Host-Defense Against Gram-Negative Bacteria and Lipopolysaccharide

P Elsbach et al. Immunobiology. .

Abstract

The bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein (BPI), is a ca. 55 kDa cytotoxic cationic protein of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) that is present principally in the azurophilic granules. BPI is toxic only toward Gram-negative bacteria. This target specificity is attributable to the strong attraction of BPI for the lipopolysaccharides (LPS) in the bacterial envelope. BPI also binds with high affinity (apparent Kd 2-5 nM) to a broad range of LPS species and potently inhibits the biologic activities of LPS in vitro. A proteolytically prepared or recombinant ca 25 kDa N-terminal fragment of BPI carries all the antibacterial activities of holo-BPI and is more potent than the holo-protein against more resistant bacteria with S-form LPS in their envelope. The fragment is as active as holo-BPI as an LPS-neutralizing agent in vitro and more potently inhibits cytokine induction by S-form Escherichia coli in whole blood ex vivo. Recombinant forms of both proteins protect animals against the lethal effects of administered LPS.

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