Clean intermittent catheterisation-performing abilities, aversive experiences and distress

Paraplegia. 1993 May;31(5):288-97. doi: 10.1038/sc.1993.52.


A total of 407 patients participated in a one year follow up study concerning their personal experiences and attitudes towards clean intermittent catheterisation (CIC). Most patients (90%) were able to perform CIC themselves, approximately 70% having no problems with the procedure. However, one third of the patients experienced CIC as aversive with significantly higher distress scores on the general health questionnaire (GHQ-28). Aversion and distress were more often reported by younger patients and females, and by patients with non neuropathic bladders. The patients' physical disabilities and their length of previous CIC experiences did not seem to influence the feelings of aversion. These findings demonstrate the importance of considering the psychological implications of CIC, and the emotional needs of these patients in order to improve compliance and quality of life.

MeSH terms

  • Adaptation, Psychological
  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Age Factors
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Disability Evaluation
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Sex Factors
  • Spinal Cord Injuries / psychology*
  • Spinal Cord Injuries / rehabilitation
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Urinary Catheterization / adverse effects
  • Urinary Catheterization / psychology*