One hundred four cases of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) in 52 families were identified within a defined area in northern Sweden corresponding to a prevalence rate of 20.1 cases per 100,000 (Dec 31 1991) for all subtypes. The prevalence of CMT type I was 16.2 per 100,000. The distribution of cases was not uniform. The prevalence rate is compared with previous prevalence studies focusing on Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease or hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy (HMSN). Three patients were classified as the distal spinal muscular atrophy type of CMT and one patient was not possible to classify. For seventy-five patients, available to clinical examination within the study, data were collected as to age at onset, symptoms, clinical findings and degree of disability.