In an effort to evaluate a hypothesis raised by findings in Denmark that painters might experience an increased risk for pharyngeal and oral cancer, data were collected about these cancers among painters in Norway, Sweden, and Finland. The possible confounding effects of alcohol and tobacco were gauged by collecting data about cancer of the lung, larynx, esophagus, liver, and bladder, and about mortality from liver cirrhosis. Consistently increased risks for lung cancer among painters were found. The risks for cancer of the oral cavity and/or pharynx were increased in Norway, Sweden, and Finland, but not to the same extent as was observed in Denmark. The risks for cancer of the esophagus were slightly increased as were the risks for cancer of the liver and for cirrhosis of the liver in Denmark and Finland. The data from Norway, Sweden, and Finland could thus neither substantiate nor disprove the hypothesis that painters may experience an increased risk for cancer of the pharynx and oral cavity as a result of occupational exposures.