Immunization against tularemia: analysis of the effectiveness of live Francisella tularensis vaccine in prevention of laboratory-acquired tularemia

J Infect Dis. 1977 Jan;135(1):55-60. doi: 10.1093/infdis/135.1.55.


A retrospective analysis was made of cases of laboratory-acquired infections with Francisella tularensis among civilian employees at Fort Detrick, Maryland. The incidence and clinical presentation of tularemia during the decade 1950-1959, when the phenol-killed Foshay vaccine was used routinely for immunization of employees, were compared with similar data from the first decade (1960-1969) after the live tularemia vaccine had come into use. The incidence of typhoidal tularemia fell (from 5.70 to 0.27 cases per 1,000 at-risk employee-years; P less than 0.001), whereas the incidence of ulceroglandular tularemia remained unchanged (from 0.76 to 0.54 cases per 1,000 at-risk employee-years). Ulceroglandular tularemia in employees immunized with live vaccine was characterized by clinical signs and symptoms that were milder than those in employees vaccinated with the Foshay vaccine.

MeSH terms

  • Bacterial Vaccines*
  • Francisella tularensis / immunology*
  • Humans
  • Immunization
  • Laboratory Infection / immunology
  • Laboratory Infection / prevention & control*
  • Male
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Tularemia / classification
  • Tularemia / immunology
  • Tularemia / prevention & control*


  • Bacterial Vaccines