Factors affecting progression in advanced chronic renal failure

Clin Nephrol. 1993 Jun;39(6):312-20.


In a series of 174 patients with advanced chronic renal failure due to well defined primary nephropathies, we retrospectively studied factors influencing the rate of progression of renal failure. Using multivariate analysis of variance, we examined the role of gender, type of nephropathy, body mass index, age, protein intake quantified from 24-hour urine urea excretion, blood pressure and need for antihypertensive treatment (including a group of patients treated with ACE inhibitors) on the rate of decline of creatinine clearance (Ccr). We found a prominent and independent influence of sex and type of nephropathy, and to a lesser extent of mean arterial pressure and protein intake. Overall, these covariates were significantly correlated with the slope of decline in creatinine clearance (n = 174; r = 0.61; r2 = 0.37; p < 0.001) indicating that nearly 40% of the total variation in the slope could be predicted by these covariates. The influence of blood pressure was more readily apparent in males, and in patients with the opposite extreme values, i.e., chronic tubulointerstitial nephritis (CIN) and hypertensive angionephrosclerosis (ANS). The effect of protein intake was marginal and limited to patients with CIN and chronic glomerulonephritis (CGN). Effect of gender was important with a progression nearly two times faster in males than in females, and was mostly apparent in polycystic kidney disease (PKD) and in CGN. Type of nephropathy was also determinant. The rate of progression was steeper in Alport's syndrome than in CGN and ANS, and in the latter than in PKD and CIN (slope: CIN = PKD < CGN = ANS < Alport).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Age Factors
  • Analysis of Variance
  • Antihypertensive Agents / therapeutic use
  • Dietary Proteins / administration & dosage
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Hypertension, Renal / epidemiology
  • Kidney Failure, Chronic / epidemiology*
  • Kidney Failure, Chronic / etiology
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Multivariate Analysis
  • Renal Dialysis
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Risk Factors
  • Sex Factors


  • Antihypertensive Agents
  • Dietary Proteins