Background: It has been hypothesized that a high dietary intake of nitrosamines and their precursors, nitrites and nitrates, is a risk factor for brain tumors. Vitamins C and E inhibit the formation of nitrosamines and thus may be protective.
Methods: We conducted a case-control study of maternal diet and the risk of primitive neuroectodermal tumors of the brain in children. The case patients were under the age of six years at diagnosis in 1986 to 1989. The controls were selected by random-digit telephone dialing and were matched for age and race to 166 case patients. Telephone interviews with the mothers included questions on the frequency of consumption of alcohol, vitamin and mineral supplements, and 53 foods during pregnancy.
Results: Significant protective trends were observed for vegetables (odds ratio for the highest quartile group for intake relative to the lowest, 0.37; P for trend = 0.005), fruits and fruit juices (odds ratio, 0.28; P = 0.003), vitamin A (odds ratio, 0.59; P = 0.03), vitamin C (odds ratio, 0.42; P = 0.009), nitrate (odds ratio, 0.44; P = 0.002), and folate (odds ratio, 0.38; P = 0.005). A nonsignificant trend of increasing risk was observed for nitrosamine (odds ratio, 1.65; P = 0.15). The use of iron (odds ratio, 0.43; P = 0.004), calcium (odds ratio, 0.42; P = 0.05), and vitamin C (odds ratio, 0.35; P = 0.04) supplements at any time during the pregnancy and the use of multivitamins during the first six weeks (odds ratio, 0.56; P = 0.02) were associated with decreased risk. In multivariate analyses, folate, early multivitamin use, and iron supplements generally remained protective.
Conclusions: These results do not support the hypothesis that nitrosamines have a role in the development of primitive neuroectodermal tumors in young children, but they do suggest that certain other aspects of maternal diet can influence the risk.