Splenic gamma delta T cells (CD4-, CD8-) increased more than 10-fold upon resolution of either Plasmodium chabaudi adami or P.c. chabaudi infections in C57BL/6 mice compared to controls. Similarly, a 10- to 20-fold expansion of the gamma delta T cell population was observed in beta 2-microglobulin deficient (beta 2-m0/0) mice that had resolved P.c. adami, P.c. chabaudi or P. yoelii yoelii infections. In contrast, increases in the number of splenic alpha beta T cells in these infected mice were only two to three-fold indicating a differential expansion of the gamma delta T cell subset during malaria. Because nucleated cells of beta 2-m0/0 mice lack surface expression of major histocompatibility complex class I and class Ib glycoproteins, our findings suggest that antigen presentation by these glycoproteins is not necessary for the increasing number of gamma delta T cells. Our observation that after resolution of P.c. adami malaria, C57BL/6 mice depleted of CD8+ cells by monoclonal antibody treatment had lower numbers of gamma delta T cells than untreated controls suggests that the demonstrated lack of CD8+ cells in beta 2-m0/0 mice does not contribute to the expansion of the gamma delta T cell population during non-lethal malaria.