We examined self-efficacy theory's ability to explain adolescents' intent to use condoms. In this study, 673 males and 404 females (mean age, 17.8 years) about to begin college, completed health surveys measuring self-efficacy regarding condom use. Perceived self-efficacy differed by gender and sexual experience. Regression analysis demonstrated that frequency of past condom use, perceived ability to talk with new partner about condoms and to enjoy sex using condoms explained 16% of sexually active males' intent to use condoms (p < 0.05). For sexually active females, explanators included frequency of past use and perceived ability to enjoy sex with condoms (R2 = 29.8%, p < 0.05). For never sexually active males, perceived ability to convince partner to use condoms and to buy condoms explained 16.1% of intent (p < 0.05); among never sexually active females, only perceived ability to convince partner to use condoms was significant (R2 = 6.2%, p < 0.05). Efforts to increase condom use should enhance perceptions of ability to negotiate aspects of condom use.