Methods for pooled analyses of epidemiologic studies

Epidemiology. 1993 Jul;4(4):295-302. doi: 10.1097/00001648-199307000-00004.


This paper presents a systematic methodology for the pooling and analysis of previously conducted epidemiologic studies. It discusses the methodologic issues to consider and the procedures to follow when conducting a pooled analysis of individual subject level data. I review random and fixed effects models to estimate pooled risks and the methods to examine whether heterogeneity in study-specific effect estimates exists. Analytic strategies presented here can be used to assess sources of heterogeneity, particularly those originating from different study designs and methods. I describe methods for incorporating a qualitative assessment of the study design and data collection methods into the quantitative estimation of the overall effect. Finally, I make recommendations for future pooled analyses of epidemiologic studies.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Epidemiologic Methods*
  • Humans
  • Models, Statistical
  • Regression Analysis
  • Research Design / statistics & numerical data
  • Sensitivity and Specificity