Smoking and Bladder Cancer Risk in Blacks and Whites in the United States

Cancer Causes Control. 1993 Jul;4(4):391-4. doi: 10.1007/BF00051343.


A population-based case-control study of bladder cancer (2,982 cases and 5,782 controls) conducted in 10 areas of the United States examined the effect of smoking as a risk factor among Blacks and Whites, after adjustment for occupation and other potential confounders. Although the overall risk for smoking was slightly higher in Blacks than Whites (relative risk = 2.7 and 2.2, respectively), this difference was not statistically significant. Estimation of risk by dose and currency of exposure revealed no consistent racial disparities in smoking-related risks. Race-specific, attributable risk estimates indicated that nearly half of bladder cancers among both Blacks and Whites could have been prevented by elimination of smoking.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • African Americans* / statistics & numerical data
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • European Continental Ancestry Group* / statistics & numerical data
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Incidence
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Risk Factors
  • Sex Factors
  • Smoking / epidemiology*
  • Smoking / ethnology
  • United States / epidemiology
  • Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / epidemiology*
  • Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / ethnology