After an injury to the central nervous system, physical and cognitive impairments and disabilities often abate. These gains may be partly mediated by mechanisms that allow reorganizing of the structure and function within gray and white matter. The potential to enhance neurologic recovery by manipulating the brain and spinal cord must now be considered in clinical practice. Today's rehabilitation routines may not encourage maximum recovery. Indeed, some commonly used physical and pharmacologic methods could inhibit the restoration of motor activities such as walking. On the other hand, therapies that use our expanding knowledge of neuroplasticity could lead to better results for patients.