Visual loss in eyes with full-thickness macular holes is thought to be caused by the absence of retinal function in the area of the neurosensory defect as well as reduction in retinal function in the surrounding area of neurosensory retinal detachment. To improve characterization of the visual function of eyes after successful macular hole surgery, we studied six eyes preoperatively and postoperatively with macular microperimetry using the scanning laser ophthalmoscope. Best-corrected visual acuity was improved postoperatively in all eyes. Microperimetry performed preoperatively demonstrated an absolute scotoma that corresponded to the neurosensory defect in all eyes, with surrounding concentric isopters of relative scotomata. No detectable absolute scotoma was found in any eye postoperatively. All eyes showed partial or complete resolution of the surrounding relative scotomata. Improvements in visual acuity after successful macular hole surgery may be related to disappearance of a detectable absolute scotoma as well as improvement in the surrounding retinal function.