Classification of congenital middle ear anomalies. Report on 144 ears

Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 1993 Aug;102(8 Pt 1):606-12. doi: 10.1177/000348949310200807.


The surgical findings in 144 successive ears operated on for congenital conductive hearing loss were analyzed, and the results were evaluated in terms of hearing gain. All the patients underwent middle ear surgery at the University Hospital Nijmegen between 1964 and 1990. A classification system was developed to analyze the findings. Class 1 comprises ears with congenital isolated stapes ankylosis. Class 2 comprises ears with congenital stapes ankylosis in combination with a congenital anomaly of the ossicular chain. Class 3 comprises ears with congenital anomalies of the ossicular chain and at least a mobile stapes footplate. Class 4 comprises ears with aplasia or severe dysplasia of the oval window or round window.

MeSH terms

  • Child
  • Congenital Abnormalities / classification
  • Ear Ossicles / abnormalities
  • Ear, Middle / abnormalities*
  • Ear, Middle / surgery
  • Hearing Loss, Conductive / congenital*
  • Hearing Loss, Conductive / epidemiology
  • Hearing Loss, Conductive / surgery
  • Humans
  • Oval Window, Ear / abnormalities
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Round Window, Ear / abnormalities
  • Stapes / abnormalities
  • Stapes Surgery