Despite recent advances in understanding the pathophysiology of poststroke depression, major questions remain. They include the relative importance of lesion location and size and the confounding effects of time since stroke, age, prior history of depression, and cerebral atrophy. To evaluate these issues, we systematically assessed depressive features, functional status, and brain structure with computer tomography scans in 91 men undergoing stroke rehabilitation. Forty percent met DSM-III criteria for major depressive disorder. Mood disturbance was more severe for patients with right than with left hemisphere lesions, correlated with functional disability and lesion size, and was associated with previous history of depression. Age, time since stroke, and atrophy did not correlate with mood. Depression is common in delayed stroke recovery, regardless of lesion location. Because there are no demographic or anatomic features that predict the absence of depression, depression screening should be part of the assessment of all patients undergoing stroke rehabilitation.