Maternal immunization with influenza or tetanus toxoid vaccine for passive antibody protection in young infants

J Infect Dis. 1993 Sep;168(3):647-56. doi: 10.1093/infdis/168.3.647.


Women in the last trimester of pregnancy were given trivalent inactivated influenza virus vaccine (TIV; A/Sichuan/H3N2, A/Taiwan/H1N1, B/Victoria) or tetanus toxoid (TT). Maternal blood was drawn before immunization and at delivery (median, 5 weeks later); infant blood was obtained within 5 days of birth and 2 months later. Antibody responses to TIV and TT were determined by microneutralization assay and ELISA. T cell response was determined by lymphocyte proliferation. Maternal seroconversion to vaccine antigens was found to one or more influenza antigen in all TIV recipients and to TT in 9 of 13 TT recipients. Significantly higher IgG antibodies to maternal vaccine antigens were present in cord and infant serum. Significant blastogenic responses were seen to influenza A and B in maternal cells of TIV-immunized women but not in cord or infant lymphocytes. Maternal immunization resulted in higher infant levels of vaccine-specific IgG antibody but not in the transfer of specific T lymphocyte response(s) or production of neonatal IgM antibody.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Antibody Formation
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Immunity, Maternally-Acquired*
  • Immunoglobulin G / blood
  • Immunoglobulin M / blood
  • Infant
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Influenza Vaccines / administration & dosage*
  • Influenza, Human / prevention & control*
  • Lymphocyte Activation
  • Pregnancy
  • Pregnancy Trimester, Third
  • Tetanus / prevention & control*
  • Tetanus Toxoid / therapeutic use*


  • Immunoglobulin G
  • Immunoglobulin M
  • Influenza Vaccines
  • Tetanus Toxoid