Correspondence analysis of HLA gene frequency data from 124 population samples

Am J Hum Genet. 1977 Jan;29(1):60-75.


Correspondence analysis, a variant of principal components analysis, is used to interpret and compare gene frequencies of the HLA system for 124 samples from different populations studied in the Fifth and Sixth International Histocompatibility Workshops. The major advantage of this analysis is that populations and HLA genes are represented simultaneously with respect to the same axes in multidimensional space. This permits the visual interpretation of genetic differences between populations, the relative participation of each gene in the dispersion, and the correspondence between populations and genes. By this method a clear separation of ethnic groups in the world is obtained. Furthermore, within Europe the separation of samples from different countries is concordant with their geographical distances. The HLA system appears sufficiently polymorphic to define a population by its gene frequencies.

MeSH terms

  • African Continental Ancestry Group
  • Asian Continental Ancestry Group
  • European Continental Ancestry Group
  • Gene Frequency*
  • HLA Antigens*
  • Histocompatibility Antigens*
  • Humans
  • Indians, South American
  • Mathematics
  • Statistics as Topic


  • HLA Antigens
  • Histocompatibility Antigens