The electrophile counterattack response: protection against neoplasia and toxicity

Adv Enzyme Regul. 1993:33:281-96. doi: 10.1016/0065-2571(93)90024-8.


Exposure of rodents or their cells in culture to low doses of a wide variety of chemical agents, many of which are electrophiles, evokes a coordinated metabolic response that protects these systems against the toxicity (including mutagenicity and carcinogenicity) of higher doses of the same or other electrophiles. This response involves enhanced transcription of Phase 2 enzymes: glutathione transferases, NAD(P)H:quinone reductase, UDP-glucuronsyltransferases, and epoxide hydrolase, as well as the elevation of intracellular levels of reduced glutathione. We suggest that this cellular adaptation, which occurs in the liver and many peripheral tissues, be designated as the "Electrophile Counterattack" response. Seven families of highly diverse chemical agents that elicit this response include: oxidatively labile diphenols and quinones; Michael reaction acceptors (olefins conjugated to electron-withdrawing groups); isothiocyanates; organic hydroperoxides; vicinal dimercaptans; trivalent arsenicals; heavy metals (HgCl2, CdCl2) as well as mercury derivatives with high affinities for sulfhydryl groups; and 1,2-dithiole-3-thiones. An analysis of the molecular mechanisms of these enzyme inductions was carried out by transient expression in hepatoma cells of a plasmid containing a 41-bp enhancer element derived from the 5'-upstream region of the mouse glutathione transferase Ya gene, and the promoter region of this gene, linked to a human growth hormone reporter gene. The concentrations of 28 inducers (belonging to the seven chemical classes) required to double growth hormone production in this system spanned a range of four orders of magnitude and were closely and linearly correlated with the concentrations of the same compounds required to double the specific activity of quinone reductase in murine hepatoma cells. We therefore conclude that the regulation of these Phase 2 enzymes (and possibly also that of glutathione synthesis) by all of these inducers is mediated by the same enhancer element that contains AP-1-like sites. Similar enhancer sequences are present in the rat glutathione transferase Ya gene, and in the upstream regulatory regions of the quinone reductase genes of rat and human liver.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Antioxidants / metabolism*
  • Antioxidants / pharmacology
  • Base Sequence
  • Butylated Hydroxyanisole / pharmacology
  • Glutathione / metabolism
  • Glutathione Transferase / genetics
  • Glutathione Transferase / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Neoplasms / prevention & control*


  • Antioxidants
  • Butylated Hydroxyanisole
  • Glutathione Transferase
  • Glutathione