Objectives: Review publications that significantly impacted on the knowledge of bacterial vaginosis.
Study design: Assessment of information on the epidemiology, bacteriology, and pathology of bacterial vaginosis.
Results: Bacterial vaginosis has a complex microbiology. Further information is required on the epidemiology. The large increase in the concentration of vaginal bacteria among patients with bacterial vaginosis is associated with postpartum and postsurgical infections and with preterm delivery.
Conclusions: Bacterial vaginosis is the most important vaginal infection because of its potential to cause upper genital tract infection in specific settings.