The 1992 literature on septic arthritis reiterated the factors that portend a poor outcome in septic arthritis. However, we still know very little about how to improve the outcome for such patients. Infections of the musculoskeletal system may be more common among patients with HIV than the reported cases indicate. Bacterial endocarditis is frequently associated with musculoskeletal complaints. Low back pain may be a presenting manifestation. Acute gout and septic arthritis can cause peripheral arthritis in some patients with bacterial endocarditis. Septic arthritis can present unusual manifestations and can occur as a complication of arthroscopic surgery; the risk factors for its development after arthroscopy have been identified. Arthroscopy as a therapeutic procedure to drain an infected joint is discussed.