VentPlan is an implementation of the architecture developed by the qualitative-quantitative (QQ) research group for combining qualitative and quantitative computation in a ventilator-management advisor (VMA). VentPlan calculates recommended settings for four controls of a ventilator by evaluating the predicted effects of alternative ventilator settings. A belief network converts clinical diagnoses to distributions on physiologic parameters. A mathematical-modeling module applies a patient-specific mathematical model of cardiopulmonary physiology to predict the effects of alternative ventilator settings. A decision-theoretic plan evaluator ranks the predicted effects of alternative ventilator settings according to a multiattribute-value model that specifies physician preferences for ventilator treatments. Our architecture allows VentPlan to interpret quantitative observations in light of the clinical context (such as the clinical diagnosis). We report a retrospective study of the ventilator-setting changes encountered in postoperative patients in a surgical intensive-care unit (ICU). We conclude that the QQ architecture allows VentPlan to apply a patient-specific physiologic model to calculate ventilator settings that are optimal with respect to a decision-theoretic value model describing physician preferences for setting the ventilator.