There is evidence that free radical damage contributes to the aetiology of many chronic health problems such as emphysema, cardiovascular and inflammatory diseases, cataracts, and cancer. In this review we are not concerned with tissue damage in vivo induced directly by radicals from exogenous sources, such as air pollutants and tobacco smoke, high-pressure oxygen, irradiation, or through the metabolism of certain solvents, drugs, and pesticides. Rather, we address some of the disease states associated with increased oxidative stress from endogenous sources and the possible therapeutic advantage of the antioxidant treatment. This raises the question of the antioxidant status of individuals and its role in protection against amplification of certain disease processes. We have chosen to concentrate mainly on coronary heart disease, reperfusion injury, and organ storage for transplantation.