Soreness in lower extremities and back is reduced by use of shock absorbing heel inserts

Int J Sports Med. 1993 Jul;14(5):288-90. doi: 10.1055/s-2007-1021179.


Soccer referees participating in large soccer tournaments may develop overuse injuries. In this study the effect of shock absorbing heel inserts in the incidence of soreness was investigated. Forty-eight referees were randomly selected to wear shock absorbing heel inserts (SAH) in the 5 day-tournament, while 43 referees were the control group. A daily questionnaire inquiring about complaints from the locomotive system was completed for each referee and in case of any soreness they were examined by doctors to document and classify the anatomical site. Calf, thigh, back, achilles tendon and knee were the most common localizations of overuse symptoms. The incidence of soreness in achilles tendon, calf and back were significantly reduced by the use of (SAH) inserts.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Randomized Controlled Trial

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Back / physiopathology*
  • Cumulative Trauma Disorders / prevention & control*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Leg / physiopathology*
  • Male
  • Orthotic Devices*
  • Pain / prevention & control*
  • Shoes*
  • Soccer / physiology*