Stabilization of echo amplitudes in FSE sequences

Magn Reson Med. 1993 Aug;30(2):183-90. doi: 10.1002/mrm.1910300206.


The classical CPMG sequence and its extension as an imaging sequence, fast spin echo (FSE, based on RARE), suffer from signal magnitude variations in the early echoes when the refocusing pulses are not set exactly to 180 degrees. It has been suggested that by varying the value of the nutation angle of each refocusing pulse the signal magnitude could be made constant. This article describes an algorithm permitting the generation of sequences of nutation angles yielding series of echoes with constant signal magnitudes. This result is then used to design selective pulses for the FSE imaging technique.

MeSH terms

  • Algorithms
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods*