Mechanisms of transcriptional synergism between distinct virus-inducible enhancer elements

Cell. 1993 Sep 10;74(5):887-98. doi: 10.1016/0092-8674(93)90468-6.


The high mobility group protein HMG I(Y) and the transcription factor NF-kappa B are required for the activity of positive regulatory domain II (PRDII), a virus-inducible regulatory element of the human interferon-beta gene promoter. In this paper we provide evidence that HMG I(Y) is also required for the activity of PRDIV, a regulatory element that synergizes with PRDII. In this case, HMG I(Y) stimulates binding of activating transcription factor 2 (ATF-2) and the assembly of inducible complexes containing ATF-2 and c-Jun. Remarkably, HMG I(Y) also specifically interacts with the leucine zipper/basic region of ATF-2, and ATF-2 in turn interacts with NF-kappa B. We therefore propose that the HMG I(Y) plays a critical structural role in establishing transcriptional synergy between PRDII and PRDIV by promoting the activities and/or binding of NF-kappa B and ATF-2 and by facilitating their interaction.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Activating Transcription Factor 2
  • Animals
  • Base Sequence
  • Binding Sites
  • Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein / metabolism*
  • Enhancer Elements, Genetic*
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Viral*
  • High Mobility Group Proteins / metabolism*
  • Humans
  • Interferon-beta / genetics*
  • L Cells
  • Mice
  • Models, Structural
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • NF-kappa B / metabolism*
  • Plasmids
  • Promoter Regions, Genetic*
  • Regulatory Sequences, Nucleic Acid*
  • Transcription Factors / metabolism*
  • Transcription, Genetic*
  • Transfection


  • ATF2 protein, human
  • Activating Transcription Factor 2
  • Atf2 protein, mouse
  • Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein
  • High Mobility Group Proteins
  • NF-kappa B
  • Transcription Factors
  • Interferon-beta