Background: A concern voiced by critics of endometrial ablation is the possibility that cryptic endometrial adenocarcinoma may develop after such ablation. To date, this concern has been theoretical.
Case: A patient presented with vaginal bleeding and was diagnosed with endometrial carcinoma 5 years after ablation of the superficial endometrium.
Conclusion: The possibility exists for endometrial carcinoma to develop years after endometrial ablation. Careful patient selection, thorough evaluation of any post-procedure bleeding, careful postoperative surveillance, and continued evaluation of the procedure and its long-term efficacy are indicated.