Attempts were made to establish a possible relationship between enterovirus infection and dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) by use of serology, virus isolation from faecal samples, and detection of enteroviral RNA in endomyocardial biopsies (EMB) by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Sera from 63 patients with DCM and matched controls were examined for enterovirus infection by mu-capture IgM and indirect IgG ELISA. Thirty-six patients were further tested for the presence of enterovirus group-specific antigen (VP1) in an immunoassay system. The results were consistently negative. Faecal samples from 35 of these patients were negative by enterovirus isolation both when samples were cultured directly and after acid treatment. EMB from 35 patients were examined for enteroviral RNA by PCR; none of the samples was reactive. In conclusion, the results fail to indicate involvement of enteroviruses in the aetiology of DCM.