E7 is the major transforming protein of human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16). It has been found to associate with the retinoblastoma protein Rb1. We investigated whether HPV16 E7 protein was associated with other cellular proteins, in particular with those involved in cell cycle control. Immunoprecipitates from CaSki cell extracts with an anti E7 monoclonal antibody contained a histone H1 kinase. Recombinant E7, synthesized in yeast, when mixed with protein extracts from epithelial cells bound histone H1 kinase activity in vitro. The in vivo and the in vitro-formed E7-kinase complex had the same periodicity of activity during the cell cycle, being most active in S and G2/M. Immunoblotting of E7 immunoprecipitates with an antibody raised against the p33CDK2, revealed a 33 kDa protein band not detected by an anti-p34cdc2 antibody, suggesting that the E7-associated kinase activity is due to the p33CDK2. The interaction appears to be via cyclin A, since probing of similar immunoblots showed a 50 kDa band corresponding to cyclin A. The association of E7 with cyclin A appeared to be direct, not involving Rb 1 or other proteins.