The determination of total cGMP levels in rod outer segments from intact toad photoreceptors in response to light superimposed on background and to consecutive flashes: a second light flash accelerates the dark recovery rate of cGMP levels in control media, but not in Na(+)-free, low Ca2+ medium

Vis Neurosci. 1993 Jan-Feb;10(1):73-9. doi: 10.1017/s0952523800003230.


In previous experiments we established that a light flash reduced cGMP levels of toad rod outer segments within the transduction time interval, but that recovery of the dark level of cGMP occurred more slowly than reported electrophysiological recovery of membrane potential. We now report that a second light flash accelerates the recovery rate of total cGMP following an initial flash, but that this acceleration is blocked in a medium which is both sodium and calcium deficient. We also noted that calcium deficiency only elevated cGMP levels when sodium was present. For other experiments, we recorded ERG or aspartate isolated PIII responses from eyecups or retinas mounted on our quick-freeze apparatus, the light stimuli originating from the double light-bench of the latter. Whereas background illumination depressed cGMP, no detectable further cGMP loss accompanied the electrical response to a flash superimposed on the background.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Bufo marinus
  • Calcium / metabolism*
  • Cyclic GMP / analysis
  • Cyclic GMP / metabolism*
  • Dark Adaptation
  • Electroretinography
  • Light
  • Photic Stimulation*
  • Photoreceptor Cells / physiology
  • Rod Cell Outer Segment / metabolism*
  • Sodium / metabolism*


  • Sodium
  • Cyclic GMP
  • Calcium