DNA methylation in the Alu sequences of diploid and haploid primary human cells

EMBO J. 1993 Mar;12(3):1141-51.


We have investigated DNA methylation in human Alu sequences, both in general and in specific Alu sequences associated with the genes for alpha 1 globin, tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and angiogenin. We studied DNAs from lymphocytes, granulocytes, brain, heart muscle and sperm, and from the human HeLa and KB cell lines by using cleavage with methylation-sensitive restriction enzymes combined with Southern blot hybridization and by using genomic sequencing. The results can be summarized as follows. (i) In differentiated primary human cells, Alu elements are often highly methylated even when they are in very 5'-CG-3'-rich regions. This finding is not consistent with the notion that hypermethylation would be a sufficient condition in itself for 5'-CG-3' sequences to undergo loss of 5-methyl-deoxycytidine (5-mC) due to deamination and subsequent mutation. (ii) There are distinct differences in the levels of methylation in the specific Alu sequences. (iii) Alu elements in the DNA of haploid spermatozoa are much less methylated than in diploid cells. Preliminary data indicate that spermatozoa contain Alu-specific RNAs. (iv) The results of cell-free transcription experiments with Alu elements suggest that the in vitro transcription of Alu elements can be inhibited by 5'-CG-3' methylation. High levels of 5'-CG-3' methylation in Alu elements could contribute to their general transcriptional inactivity. (v) The patterns of methylation observed in the Alu elements and in the surrounding sequences are characterized by cell type specific interindividual concordance.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / genetics
  • Base Sequence
  • Blotting, Southern
  • Cell-Free System
  • Cells, Cultured
  • DNA / metabolism*
  • Genome, Human
  • Globins / genetics
  • HeLa Cells
  • Humans
  • Methylation
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Ploidies*
  • Proteins / genetics
  • Repetitive Sequences, Nucleic Acid*
  • Ribonuclease, Pancreatic*
  • Tissue Plasminogen Activator / genetics
  • Transcription, Genetic


  • Proteins
  • Adrenocorticotropic Hormone
  • Globins
  • DNA
  • angiogenin
  • Ribonuclease, Pancreatic
  • Tissue Plasminogen Activator