The HIV-1 tat protein enhances E2-dependent human papillomavirus 16 transcription

Virus Res. 1993 Feb;27(2):133-45. doi: 10.1016/0168-1702(93)90077-z.


Epidemiologic studies show an association between infection with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and human papillomavirus (HPV) associated anogenital disease. To investigate possible molecular mechanisms of HIV-1 modulation of HPV expression, we studied the effect of an HIV-1 regulatory protein, tat1, on gene expression directed by the upstream regulatory region (URR) of HPV type 16 (HPV 16). HPV 16 URR-directed chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) expression driven by the native HPV 16 promoter (P97) was increased in the presence of tat1 alone. Tat1 also reversed E2-mediated repression of P97-directed CAT expression. E2 mediated CAT expression with URR constructs containing the SV40 promoter was enhanced when tat1 and E2 were cotransfected. Using a cervical carcinoma cell line (SiHa), E2 enhancement of URR-directed gene expression was elevated in the presence of extracellular tat1 or during cocultivation with HIV-1-infected cells. These results show HIV can modulate HPV gene expression in cell culture and that the increased rate of HPV-associated cervical disease in asymptomatic HIV-seropositive women may result from HPV-HIV molecular interactions.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / complications
  • Cell Line
  • DNA-Binding Proteins*
  • Female
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Viral / drug effects
  • Gene Products, tat / genetics*
  • Gene Products, tat / pharmacology
  • HIV Infections / complications
  • HIV-1 / genetics*
  • HIV-1 / pathogenicity
  • Humans
  • Oncogene Proteins, Viral / genetics
  • Papillomaviridae / drug effects
  • Papillomaviridae / genetics*
  • Papillomaviridae / pathogenicity
  • Transcription, Genetic / drug effects
  • Transcriptional Activation
  • Transfection
  • Tumor Virus Infections / complications
  • Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / complications
  • tat Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus


  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • E2 protein, Human papillomavirus type 16
  • Gene Products, tat
  • Oncogene Proteins, Viral
  • tat Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus