Liver resection for hepatocellular carcinoma. Results of 229 consecutive patients during 11 years

Ann Surg. 1993 Apr;217(4):375-84. doi: 10.1097/00000658-199304000-00009.


Objective: This study analyzed the results in 229 patients with primary hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) who were treated by radical hepatic resection in the past 11 years.

Summary background data: Due to marked advances in diagnostic and therapeutic methods, the therapeutic strategy for HCC has changed significantly. However, there are still many problems to be solved when hepatic resection is to be performed for HCC associated with chronic liver disease. A satisfactory result may be possible only when all of accurate operative indication, skillful surgical technique, and sophisticated postoperative management are met.

Methods: There were 188 men and 41 women. Age ranged from 32 to 79 years averaging 60.8. Underlying cirrhosis of the liver was found in 177 patients, and chronic hepatitis was found in 47 instances. Before surgery, 114 patients had 157 associated conditions; diabetes mellitus in 66, esophageal varices in 42, cholelithiasis in 22, peptic ulcer in 12, and miscellaneous in 15 cases. In addition to various types of hepatic resection, 69 patients underwent concomitant operations such as cholecystectomy, the Warren shunt, splenectomy, partial gastrectomy, and so forth.

Results: The 30-day (operative) mortality rate was 7.0%, and there were eight additional late deaths (3.5%). Child's class, bromosulphalein (BSP) test, and the estimated blood loss during surgery were good predictors for operative death. The cumulative 5- and 10-year survival rates for all patients were 26.4% and 19.4%, respectively. At present, 110 patients are alive; 2 more than 10 years and 21 more than 5 years. Younger age, absence of cirrhosis, smaller tumor, and postoperative chemotherapy were associated with increased survival.

Conclusions: The results of hepatic resection in 229 patients with HCC were analyzed. Child's class, BSP test, and blood loss during surgery were good predictors for operative death. The 5- and 10-year survival rates were 26.4% and 19.4%, respectively. Age, liver cirrhosis, tumor size, and postoperative chemotherapy were prognostic factors. Multidisciplinary approach with liver resection, postoperative chemotherapy, and liver transplantation will be a realistic direction for the surgical treatment of HCC in future.

MeSH terms

  • Blood Loss, Surgical
  • Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / complications
  • Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / mortality
  • Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / surgery*
  • Female
  • Hepatectomy / methods
  • Hepatectomy / mortality*
  • Hepatitis, Chronic / complications
  • Humans
  • Liver Cirrhosis / complications
  • Liver Neoplasms / complications
  • Liver Neoplasms / mortality
  • Liver Neoplasms / surgery*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Postoperative Complications / mortality
  • Prognosis
  • Risk Factors
  • Survival Rate