Epstein-Barr virus can induce an uncontrolled B cell proliferation called B lymphocyte proliferative disorder (BLPD) in immunocompromised hosts. It is a complication that is increasing in prevalence with the growing frequency of transplantation. About 40% of BLPD are reversible following reduction of immunosuppressive therapy. In other instances, BLPD are often fatal with the exception of localized tumors that can be surgically excised. Therapeutic strategies have included antiviral drugs, alpha-interferon, and anti-B cell antibodies.