2B and 2C Mutations Are Essential but Mutations Throughout the Genome of HAV Contribute to Adaptation to Cell Culture

Virology. 1993 Jun;194(2):475-80. doi: 10.1006/viro.1993.1286.


Chimeric viruses constructed from various portions of two infectious cDNA clones representing the genomes of the wild-type and cell culture-adapted mutants of the HM-175 strain of hepatitis A virus were compared for their ability to replicate in cultures of fetal rhesus kidney cells. Mutations located in either the 5' or 3' third of the genome could markedly enhance growth in vitro but only when they were combined with mutations in the P2 region within either the 2B or the 2C gene. Therefore, mutations in 2B and 2C are essential for cell culture adaptation but mutations elsewhere in the genome also contribute significantly to the enhanced growth rate.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adaptation, Biological
  • Animals
  • Capsid / genetics
  • Capsid Proteins
  • Cells, Cultured
  • Cloning, Molecular
  • DNA, Recombinant
  • DNA, Viral / genetics
  • Genome, Viral*
  • Hepatovirus / genetics*
  • Hepatovirus / growth & development*
  • Macaca mulatta
  • Mutagenesis, Site-Directed
  • Mutation / genetics*
  • Transfection
  • Viral Nonstructural Proteins / genetics*


  • Capsid Proteins
  • DNA, Recombinant
  • DNA, Viral
  • Viral Nonstructural Proteins