We sought to determine the prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in a population of women with human papillomavirus (HPV)-related diseases attending a colposcopy clinic who had no other CDC-defined risk factors for HIV. Study patients included all new patients attending our colposcopy clinic who were found to have histologic evidence of condyloma or cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. Those patients not already known to be HIV-positive were offered testing for HIV. Demographic information was obtained on all patients. Results were compared to data from anonymous testing of our own obstetrical population. One hundred forty of 208 women (67.3%) were either previously known to be HIV-positive or agreed to be tested. Sixteen (11.4%) were HIV-positive. Eight of the HIV-positive women were not previously known to be HIV-positive and 6 of the 8 had no definable risk factors for HIV infection. This is 4.6% of the women not already known to have a CDC-defined risk factor for HIV. The rate of HIV infection in our obstetrical population is 1.6%. In women without other definable risks for HIV infection and who had HPV-related disease the relative risk of HIV infection in our population was 2.94 (95% confidence interval 1.21-6.94; P < 0.031). In areas where HIV is endemic there is a high prevalence of HIV infection in women with HPV-related disease. Even in women without another definable risk factor for HIV, HPV-related disease may serve as a marker for an increased risk of HIV infection in this population.