The purpose of this study was to obtain a better understanding of women who demand a cesarean section when obstetricians do not think it is necessary. Thirty-three pregnant women were interviewed about their reasons for the demand. The 28 parous women referred to previous childbirth experiences and feared mainly for intractable labor pain and for the life and health of the child. The most prevalent fear of the five nulliparae was for vaginal rupture. According to their wishes and prerequisites the women received counselling or short-term psychotherapy by a psychotherapeutically trained obstetrician. At term 14 women chose vaginal delivery and 19 had elective cesareans, three on obstetric indications and 16 at their own choice.