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, 268 (24), 17830-6

Interaction Between Retinoic Acid and Vitamin D Signaling Pathways

  • PMID: 8394351

Interaction Between Retinoic Acid and Vitamin D Signaling Pathways

M Schräder et al. J Biol Chem.


The nuclear signaling pathways for retinoids and vitamin D differ in the specificity of the respective receptors for response elements. Two pathways for the action of both retinoic acid receptors (RARs) and vitamin D receptors (VDRs) have been identified, one being retinoid X receptor (RXR)-dependent and the other being RXR-independent. Moreover, RXRs were found to function as homodimers. In several steps we converted the retinoid specific response element of the human retinoic acid receptor beta promoter into the vitamin D/retinoic acid response element of the human osteocalcin promoter. We found that VDR homodimers only bind to the motif RGGTGA. The extended osteocalcin element also contains an imperfect direct repeat based on the motif RGGTGA spaced by three nucleotides, which is bound by RXR homodimers and activated by 9-cis-retinoic acid. The responsiveness of the osteocalcin element to all-trans-retinoic acid is mediated neither by RAR homodimers nor by RAR-RXR heterodimers. However, a VDR-RAR heterodimer binds to the osteocalcin response element and mediates activation by all-trans-retinoic acid. This heterodimer also binds to pure retinoid response elements, but it does not mediate activation by vitamin D alone. In combination with all-trans-retinoic acid, however, vitamin D enhances VDR-RAR heterodimer-mediated gene expression. This finding suggests a direct interaction between nuclear signaling by retinoic acid and vitamin D increasing the combinatorial possibilities for gene regulation by the nuclear receptors involved.

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