Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is the leading cause of congenital viral infection in the United States. To prevent damaging congenital CMV infections, it is necessary to have accurate population estimates of prevalence and to identify maternal factors associated with an elevated risk of congenital infection in the newborn. From 1980 through 1990, 17,163 offspring of predominantly low-income nonwhite women who delivered at a public hospital and 9892 newborns of predominantly mid- to upper-income white women who delivered at a private hospital were screened for congenital CMV infection. Women < 20 years old (adjusted prevalence odds ratio [POR], 4.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.6-8.9) at the public hospital and all nonwhite women (adjusted POR, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.1-2.2) had an increased risk of delivering an infected newborn. Newborns of adolescent women in both populations had the highest prevalence of clinically apparent infection. Offspring of nonwhite low-income adolescents are at greatest risk for congenital CMV infection and more damaging sequelae.