We analyzed the results of 19 patients who had intrahepatic recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) among 47 patients who were discharged from the hospital after having a hepatic resection in order to evaluate the factors affecting recurrence and survival. Recurrence-free survival rates were 80%, 44%, and 28% at 1, 3, and 5 years, respectively. Of the 19 patients with recurrence, 14 had multiple lesions, and 16 of the recurrences were detected within 3 years of surgery. None of the following factors correlated with recurrence: hepatic function; tumor size; presence of tumor capsule; capsular invasion; vascular invasion and intrahepatic metastasis; extent of hepatic resection; and resection with tumor-free margins. Patients having multiple recurrent HCCs, however, had larger-sized tumors at the time of resection than those with a solitary recurrence. The survival rates after recurrence were significantly better in patients with a solitary recurrence, and these patients were treated with transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) therapy. Early detection as well as TAE for recurrent HCCs is necessary to improve long-term survival.