Pharmacokinetics of the enantiomers of verapamil in the dog

Chirality. 1993;5(6):436-42. doi: 10.1002/chir.530050608.


The intravenous (0.5 mg/kg) and oral (5 mg/kg) dose kinetics of verapamil were studied in 6 dogs during steady-state oral verapamil dosing (5 mg/kg every 8 h for 3 days). Racemic verapamil and norverapamil, a metabolite of verapamil, were quantitated in plasma by HPLC-fluorescence detection. The verapamil peaks eluting off the column were collected and rechromatographed on an Ultron-OVM column, which resolved the two verapamil enantiomers. After intravenous administration, the systemic clearance and apparent volume of distribution of (-)-(S)-verapamil were nearly twice that of the (+)-(R)-isomer. There was no difference in the elimination half-lives between the two isomers. After oral administration, the oral clearance of (-)-(S)-verapamil was 20 times that of the (+)-(R)-isomer. The apparent bioavailability of (+)-(R)-verapamil was over 14 times that of (-)-(S)-verapamil. The plasma protein binding of the (+)-(R)-isomer was slightly higher by 5% than (-)-(S)-verapamil; however, this effect was not enough to account for the difference between the apparent volume of distribution of the enantiomers, indicating that the tissue binding of (-)-(S)-verapamil was greater than that of the (+)-(R)-isomer. This data on the disposition of the enantiomers of verapamil in the dog is similar to that reported for man and demonstrates that the dog may be an appropriate animal model for man in future studies on the disposition of the enantiomers of verapamil.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Administration, Oral
  • Animals
  • Blood Proteins / metabolism
  • Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
  • Dogs
  • Female
  • In Vitro Techniques
  • Injections, Intravenous
  • Protein Binding
  • Stereoisomerism
  • Verapamil / administration & dosage
  • Verapamil / chemistry
  • Verapamil / pharmacokinetics*


  • Blood Proteins
  • Verapamil