We evaluated the use of a six-item telephone questionnaire to estimate fruit and vegetable intakes in five diverse populations. Researchers administered the telephone questionnaire to persons who had previously undergone more extensive dietary assessment. The study population included 553 middle-aged and older adults in Beaver Dam, WI; 252 middle-aged and older women throughout Wisconsin; 150 parents of school children in Augusta, GA; 73 low-income, Hispanic mothers in Chicago, IL; and 51 older adults in Arizona. Spearman correlation coefficients between total fruit and vegetable intakes measured by the brief telephone survey and by more extensive food frequency questionnaires were 0.47 (Augusta), 0.48 (Arizona), 0.56 (Wisconsin), and 0.57 (Beaver Dam). Correlations between intakes measured by the brief telephone survey and by multiple diet records or recalls were 0.29 (Arizona), 0.46 (Chicago), and 0.54 (Beaver Dam). With the exception of Arizona, mean daily fruit and vegetable intakes measured by the telephone survey were similar to intakes estimated by multiple diet records or recalls and lower than those estimated by extensive food frequency questionnaires. Although caution may be needed in interpreting dietary reports from some ethnic subgroups, this brief telephone questionnaire may be useful for surveillance of fruit and vegetable intake in the United States.