Nicotine and caffeine use in cocaine-dependent individuals

J Subst Abuse. 1993;5(2):117-30. doi: 10.1016/0899-3289(93)90056-h.


Nicotine and caffeine use in 87 cocaine-dependent persons seeking treatment at an outpatient clinic were compared to use of those substances in a matched general population sample (n = 78). The prevalence of cigarette smoking was significantly greater in the cocaine-dependent sample (75% vs. 22%). Within the cocaine-dependent sample, smokers were younger, less educated, employed in lesser skilled jobs, and reported an earlier onset and more frequent use of cocaine. The prevalence of caffeine use was significantly less in the cocaine-dependent group (68% vs. 83%), although, among caffeine users, the cocaine group drank significantly more caffeinated beverages per day than matched controls (4.9 vs. 3.3). Interestingly, regular caffeine use was associated with less frequent cocaine use within the cocaine-dependent sample. To our knowledge, this study is the first to report on prevalence of smoking and caffeine use among cocaine-dependent individuals, and suggests that use of these other substances may influence the onset and pattern of cocaine use.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Ambulatory Care
  • Caffeine*
  • Cocaine*
  • Comorbidity
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Humans
  • Incidence
  • Smoking / epidemiology*
  • Smoking Cessation
  • Substance-Related Disorders / epidemiology*
  • Substance-Related Disorders / rehabilitation
  • Vermont / epidemiology


  • Caffeine
  • Cocaine