Mammography in women > or = 50 years of age. Predisposing and enabling characteristics

Cancer Nurs. 1993 Aug;16(4):260-9.


The purpose of this study was to identify the relationship of selected predisposing and enabling characteristics of women > or = 50 years of age to mammography utilization. Andersen and Aday's theoretical model for health services utilization guided data collection. Data were collected from a convenience sample of 161 women members of four urban churches, using a mailed survey. Results showed that 81% reported at least one mammogram and 24% had followed mammography guidelines for the preceding 3 years. Results of logistic regression analyses with variables having a bivariate significance of p < or = 0.01 showed that higher income was associated with both ever having a mammogram and adherence. Willingness to pay > $50 out of pocket for a mammogram was significant for 3 year adherence. Additionally, the sociodemographic variables of age and religion were associated with adherence, whereas a college education was highly significant (odds ratio = 13.78) for ever having a mammogram. Having a regular place for health care and having yearly Papanicolaou tests were associated with ever having a mammogram, but not adherence. Finally, intending to get a mammogram was associated with ever having a mammogram. In this study, belief and knowledge variables showed no association with utilization, and social influence had bivariate significance only for ever having a mammogram. This study suggests the importance of addressing economic and health-care delivery system factors to promote increased mammography utilization, particularly for older women.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Attitude to Health
  • Clinical Nursing Research
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Demography
  • Female
  • Health Behavior
  • Humans
  • Mammography / psychology*
  • Mammography / statistics & numerical data*
  • Middle Aged
  • Motivation*
  • Multivariate Analysis
  • Sampling Studies
  • Social Environment