Lipiodol retention and massive necrosis after lipiodol-chemoembolization of hepatocellular carcinoma: correlation between computed tomography and histopathology

Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol. Jul-Aug 1993;16(4):209-13. doi: 10.1007/BF02602962.


This retrospective study examined the computed tomography (CT) criteria for judging the effectiveness of transcatheter arterial Lipiodol-chemoembolization (Lp-chemo-TAE) in 35 cases with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Massive necrosis, defined as involving 97% or more of the HCC nodule, was observed in 15 cases after Lp-chemo-TAE, whereas nonmassive necrosis, defined as involving < or = 96% of the HCC nodule, was observed in the remaining 20 cases. In 12 of 15 cases (80%) with massive necrosis, uniform dense retention of Lipiodol (Lp) was observed throughout the HCC nodule on CT images 3-4 weeks after Lp-chemo-TAE as opposed to only one (5%) of 20 cases with nonmassive necrosis (p < 0.01). Eight of nine cases (89%) with massive necrosis had tumor attenuation values of 365 Hounsfield units (HU) or greater on CT images 3-4 weeks after embolization, as opposed to only four (27%) of 15 cases with nonmassive necrosis (p < 0.01). We conclude that the effectiveness of the Lp-chemo-TAE can be judged on CT from the degree and duration of Lp retention in the HCC nodule and the measurement of the attenuation value of the HCC nodule.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / diagnosis
  • Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / epidemiology
  • Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / therapy*
  • Chemoembolization, Therapeutic*
  • Epirubicin / administration & dosage
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Iodized Oil / administration & dosage*
  • Liver / diagnostic imaging*
  • Liver / pathology
  • Liver Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • Liver Neoplasms / epidemiology
  • Liver Neoplasms / therapy*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Mitomycin / administration & dosage
  • Necrosis
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Tomography, X-Ray Computed*


  • Epirubicin
  • Mitomycin
  • Iodized Oil