Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) in human milk

Clin Exp Immunol. 1993 Oct;94(1):220-4. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2249.1993.tb06004.x.


The amount of TGF-beta contained in human whey was studied by the colony formation of NRK47F cells. It was noted that a factor inducing colony formation did exist in human whey, and its action was neutralized when anti-TGF-beta antibodies were introduced. This suggests that TGF-beta does exist in human whey. In colostrum, the total amount of TGF-beta was 1365.7 +/- 242.9 ng/ml, of which the active form comprised 728.1 +/- 248.7 ng/ml (n = 21). In late milk, the total TGF-beta was 952.5 +/- 212.6 ng/ml, with an active form of 178.7 +/- 157.3 ng/ml. Thus human milk contains a large amount of active TGF-beta. Furthermore, it was revealed by the reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction that mRNAs coding TGF-beta 1 and TGF-beta 2 exist in human milk cells. These results suggest that both TGF-beta 1 and TGF-beta 2 exist in human milk.

MeSH terms

  • Base Sequence
  • Colostrum / chemistry
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Milk, Human / chemistry*
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Pregnancy
  • RNA, Messenger / analysis
  • Transforming Growth Factor beta / analysis*
  • Transforming Growth Factor beta / genetics


  • RNA, Messenger
  • Transforming Growth Factor beta