We studied 47 consecutive patients who underwent temporal resection for seizure control. Nineteen (40%) had febrile convulsions preceding onset of their habitual seizures. In 17 of 18 patients whose disease duration was known, the febrile convulsions were prolonged (mean 4 h). As compared with patients without preceding febrile convulsions, patients with antecedent febrile convulsions had a significantly higher prevalence of positive family history of febrile convulsions, an increased incidence of retrospectively identified gestational or perinatal complications, and no foreign tissue lesions. Pathologic studies showed gliosis and cell loss in mesiotemporal structures, usually moderate, in addition to usually mild gliosis in lateral temporal cortex. These patients had an excellent outcome after temporal resection: 84% were seizure-free, had residual auras only, or occasional convulsions with medication discontinuation. One patient (5%) had > 90% improvement. Two patients (11%) in whom the hippocampus was totally spared continued to have complex partial seizures: in both, seizures stopped after reoperation and hippocampal resection. Thus, 95% of these patients had an excellent result. Only 16% required invasive preoperative studies to confirm lateralization. These results were significantly better than those of the group without preceding febrile convulsions (p = 0.0013).