Assay of human vitreous specimens obtained postmortem for HIV antibodies, or HIV p24 antigen, is reported to be a reliable technique to demonstrate HIV infection in possible cornea donors from whom serum could not be obtained. We tested three vitreous samples obtained during vitrectomy from two HIV-positive patients. One patient exhibited the clinical AIDS syndrome. HIV antigen and antibody tests were negative in all specimens. HIV proviral DNA was detected by PCR only in the vitreous of the patient with AIDS. Therefore, testing only vitreous samples is insufficient to exclude HIV infection in potential cornea donors.