We describe a male neonate with severe combined immunodeficiency who at birth had acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) as a result of maternal-fetal transfusion during pregnancy. Several clinical signs helped establish this diagnosis. Findings of a skin biopsy specimen confirmed the diagnosis of acute GVHD. Immunologic evaluation disclosed an absence of T and B lymphocytes. Acute GVHD in severe combined immunodeficiency most often occurs during the first weeks of life; intrauterine occurrence is unusual.