A review of the literature is made, in the attempt to establish the principles of the diagnosis and treatment in emergency surgery. They are listed as follows: 1. To preserve patient life and evaluate the functional capacity of the organism; 2. To establish emergency diagnosis; 3. To choose the method of treatment; 4. Method of operation. The guidelines in emergency surgery is to develop and perfect new methods of operation and new technical facilities, to raise the professional skill of the surgeon and to improve the organization of work in surgical clinics and departments.