Basic chromosomal proteins were extracted from the sperm of fertile and infertile human males. The relative proportions of protamine 1, 2, and 3 were determined by scanning microdensitometry following electrophoresis of total protamine in polyacrylamide gels. The findings were as follows: (1) The proportion of protamine P(2 + 3) in sperm obtained from infertile males was lower than that in fertile males. (2) Protamine P(2 + 3) in infertile human males showed reduced affinity to DNA. The possibility that some cases of human male infertility may be due to mutation within the protamine P2 gene is discussed.